Complete blood count (CBC):
The CBC assesses several different parameters and can provide a great deal of information. The red cell variables will determine whether or not the patient is anaemic. If anaemia is present the MCV is likely to provide clues as to the cause of the anaemia. The white cells are often raised in infection—neutrophilia in bacterial infections and lymphocytosis in viral (but not always so). Platelets (size or number) may be abnormal either as a direct effect of underlying blood disease or may simply reflect the presence of some other underlying pathology.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
An erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a type of blood test that measures how quickly erythrocytes (red blood cells) settle at the bottom of a test tube that contains a blood sample. Normally, red blood cells settle relatively slowly. A faster-than-normal rate may indicate inflammation in the body. Inflammation is part of your immune response system. It can be a reaction to an infection or injury. Inflammation may also be a sign of a chronic disease, an immune disorder, or other medical condition
are based on the markers (specific carbohydrates or proteins) or antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). Two major antigens or surface identifiers on human RBCs are the A and B antigens. Another important surface antigen is called Rh. Blood typing detects the presence or absence of these antigens to determine a person’s ABO blood group and Rh type.
These are immature RBCS formed in the marrow and found in small numbers in normal peripheral blood.
Glucose (commonly called “blood sugar”) is the primary energy source for the body’s cells and the only short-term energy source for the brain and nervous system. A steady supply must be available for use, and a relatively constant level of glucose must be maintained in the blood. Glucose tests measure the level of glucose in your blood or detect glucose in your urine.
also called A1c or glycated hemoglobin, is hemoglobin with glucose attached. The A1c test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the last 2 to 3 months by measuring the percentage of glycated hemoglobin in the blood.
Lipids are a group of fats and fat-like substances that are important constituents of cells and sources of energy. A lipid panel measures the level of specific lipids in the blood.
Two important lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, are transported in the blood by lipoproteins (also called lipoprotein particles). Each type of lipoprotein contains a combination of cholesterol, triglyceride, protein, and phospholipid molecules. The particles measured with a lipid panel are classified by their density into high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).
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Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working.
Liver function tests:
Liver function tests are blood tests used to help diagnose and monitor liver disease or damage. The tests measure the levels of certain enzymes and proteins in your blood.
Some of these tests measure how well the liver is performing its normal functions of producing protein and clearing bilirubin, a blood waste product. Other liver function tests measure enzymes that liver cells release in response to damage or disease.
The total calcium blood test is used to measure the total amount of calcium in your blood. Calcium is one of the most important minerals in your body. Most of your body’s calcium is stored in your bones.
is a mineral that combines with other substances to form organic and inorganic phosphate compounds. The terms phosphorus and phosphate are often used interchangeably when talking about testing, but it is the amount of inorganic phosphate in the blood that is measured with a serum phosphorus/phosphate test.
are groups of clinical chemistry laboratory blood tests that are used to evaluate body iron stores or the iron level in blood serum.
Other terms used for the same tests are iron panel, iron profile, iron indices, iron status or iron studies.
Ferritin is the major iron storage protein of the body. Ferritin levels can be used to indirectly measure how much iron is in the body. Ferritin has the shape of a hollow sphere that permits the entry of a variable amount of iron for storage (as ferric hydroxide phosphate complexes).
endocrine system test:
The endocrine system is an integrated network that consists of various glands located throughout the body. Together with the nervous system, the endocrine system controls and regulates many internal bodily functions. While the nervous system uses nerve impulses as a means of control, the endocrine system uses chemical messenger molecules called hormones. Hormones are produced, stored, and secreted by the network of glands.
are tests that are used to diagnose autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune disorders are those disorders that occur when the body’s immune system attacks different organs, cells, tissues or the entire body. The immune system does not recognize the cells as one of its own and creates antibodies that attack the cells.
also called serology test or antibody test, any of several laboratory procedures carried out on a sample of blood serum (the clear liquid that separates from the blood when it is allowed to clot) for the purpose of detecting antibodies or antibody-like substances that appear specifically in association with certain diseases.
is the analysis of chromosomes (DNA), proteins, and certain metabolites in order to detect heritable disease-related genotypes, mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes for clinical purposes.
It can provide information about a person’s genes and chromosomes throughout life.
Corona virus test:
PCR test. Also called a molecular test, this COVID-19 test detects genetic material of the virus using a lab technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A fluid sample is collected by inserting a long nasal swab (nasopharyngeal swab) into your nostril and taking fluid from the back of your nose or by using a shorter nasal swab (mid-turbinate swab) to get a sample. In some cases, a long swab is inserted into the back of your throat (oropharyngeal swab), or you may spit into a tube to produce a saliva sample. Results may be available in minutes if analyzed onsite or a few days — or longer in locations with test processing delays — if sent to an outside lab. PCR tests are very accurate when properly performed by a health care professional, but the rapid test can miss some cases.
Antigen test. This COVID-19 test detects certain proteins in the virus. Using a long nasal swab to get a fluid sample, some antigen tests can produce results in minutes. Others may be sent to a lab for analysis. A positive antigen test result is considered accurate when instructions are carefully followed, but there’s an increased chance of false-negative results — meaning it’s possible to be infected with the virus but have a negative result. Depending on the situation, the doctor may recommend a PCR test to confirm a negative antigen test result.